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Hitory of Gujranwala

Gujranwala (Punjabi, Urdu: گُوجرانٚوالا‎ ) is an industrial city in the north-east of the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is the 6th largest city (World Gazetteer. Retrieved 22 August 2012.) in Pakistan with a population of approximately 2,661,360 as of 24 June 2011 (Extrapolated from a population of 1,415,711 in 2006 and a population of 2,569,090 on February 4, 2011).[1] It is one of the 27th fastest growing cities in the world.[2] Gujranwala is located at 32.16° North, 74.18° East and is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level.[3] It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi, Alipur Chatha, kamonke and some small towns and villages. Punjabi is the local language, but English and Urdu are also common, particularly in schools and offices.
Due to extensive road and rail links the city has flourished within the manufacturing and agricultural markets. The city is on the Grand Trunk Road, which allows logistical connections to the provincial capitals such as Peshawar and Lahore and also to the capital of Pakistan Islamabad. It is in between Lahore, Gujrat and Wazirabad.

Gujranwala is known for its extensive production of sugarcane, melons and grains for international export. Gujranwala exports one of the world's finest quality varieties of rice. The city has set up several commercial and industrial centres allowing the manufacture of ceramics, fanse, electrical switch gears, engineering tools, agricultural/earth moving machinery, steel, cutlery, crockery, iron safes, metal tool, utensils, textiles, woollen sweaters, sanitary fittings and tannery production. The city has produced some of the finest wrestlers and bodybuilders of the subcontinent, which has resulted in the nickname 'City of wrestlers' or Phelwana da shehar in Punjabi.

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of British India, the town was originally founded by Gojar / Gurjars and renamed Khanpur by the Sansi Jatts of Amritsar who settled there, but its old name has survived.[4] Many historians also state that the place was named after Gurjars,[5] while they formerly ruled the Gurjara Pratihara Empire for centuries 

In 630, Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsuan Tsang visited a major town known as Tse-kia (or Taki), which was in the vicinity of modern Gujranwala. A mound near the modern village of Asarur has been identified as the site of the ancient city. Gujranwala slowly developed as a medieval town and many Muslim Sufi missionaries converted the local Gurjars population to Islam. Until the arrival of the Muslims little is known of Gujranwala, except that Taki had fallen into oblivion and Lahore had become the chief city. Under Muslim rule the district flourished for a time; but a mysterious depopulation took place and the whole region seems to have been almost entirely abandoned. The district gazetteer dates the name of Gujranwala to approximately the middle of the 16th century.
Geography and climateGujranwala is located at 32.16° North, 74.18° East and is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level. It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi and various small towns and villages. To its south lies the provincial capital of Lahore, which is roughly 80 km away. Sialkot and Gujrat lie to its north. Gujrat connects Gujranwala with Bhimber and Mirpure Azad Jammun and Kashmir while Silakot connects it with Jammun. In the southwest lies Faisalabad, roughly 160 km from the city and Shiekhupura.

The climate of Gujranwala changes quite drastically through the year. The summer periods last from June through to September where the temperature reaches 36-42 degrees Celsius. The coldest months are usually November to February. The temperature can drop to seven degrees Celsius on average. The highest precipitation months are usually July and August when the monsoon season hits the Punjab province. During the other months the average rainfall is roughly 25 mm. The driest months are usually November through to April, when little rainfall is seen.[
Water and severage

There is a main under ground sewage system in the city of Gujranwala, mainly controlled and maintained by WASA (Water and Sanitation Agency). Water is also provided by the agency but most of the population uses personally owned water pumps at homes to draw water from underground. The main canal that runs through the city is called the "Chichar Wali nehar (Canal)". Gujranwala is generally considered a neglected city by the city government and/or by the provincial government in regards to sanitation and water supplies. All the broken roads and streets are heavily littered with filth and animal waste which is generating serious health problems for the masses.

  Transport

Gujranwala is an extremely accessible city, benefiting from excellent road and rail links built during the reign of the British that have allowed the city to grow and prosper. By road, the city is less than two hours away from Lahore and three hours drive from Islamabad. The city has a dry port for the export of local products to the rest of the world. The Grand Trunk Road and the motorways have helped the logistical movement of cargo as well as communiting from one city to the next. Important highways off shooting Gujranwala are, Gujranwala-Hafizabad-Pindi Bhattian-Chiniot-Jhang road, Gujranwala-Sialkot road, Gujranwala-Shiekhupura road, Gujranwala-Pasrur road and Gujranwala-Alipure Chatha road.

There are also rail links with major cities in Pakistan including Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Faisalabad as well as smaller cities within the country. The Gujranwala Railway Station was built by the British before the Independence of Pakistan and was one of the largest railway stations of the Asia. It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road which passes through the centre of the city.

Sammi Daewoo, a Korean company, has also started its transport services from Gujranwala to many major cities of the Pakistan since 2006 and provides luxury transportation for people of Gujranwala. The terminal is situated on G.T. road near Aziz Cross (Rawalpindi bypass Chowk). Star Travels is an important private road transport terminal situated on Sheikhupura road. General Bus Stand is the largest road transport terminal of the city located on G.T. road. Gujranwala City Tours is the urban transport set up of the city.

The city is served by two international airports at Lahore and Sialkot which offer flights domestically as well as internationally. Allama Iqbal International Airport (80 km from the city) and Sialkot International Airport (40 km from the city) are the prime airports that provide flights to Gujranwala. There is an air base run by Pakistan Air Force known as PAF Airbase Rahwali, located on Shara-e-Quaid in Cantt. area.

  Sports

Pakistan Flying Disc Federation[11] is also situated at Gujranwala.

  Food and beverage

Gujranwala is famous for its cuisine. A number of restaurants in Gujranwala offer a variety of food. Chinese, continental, fast food and popular local dishes are offered at different eating places. People from other cities and far off places visit Gujranwala to enjoy popular traditional food like "chanp", "Chirray", "kabab", and "tikka". The favourite and common food, known in Urdu as "Mun bhata khana" is rice and lentils, commonly called "Dal chaawal". As well as foreign brands are also in increase demand.


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